Welcome to this curriculum resource on Treaty Education.
This unit is part of a Treaty Education resource for Grades 3 – 6 sponsored by the Three Nations Education Initiative Inc. and the New Brunswick Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. It provides opportunities for all Grade 5 students, their teachers, and the public across the province to explore the issues of:
- Shared history that includes culture, traditions, and beliefs
- Contributions that Indigenous peoples of New Brunswick have made to contemporary society and the political, social, and economic issues that remain outstanding
- The Peace and Friendship Treaties that serve as the foundation of present-day interrelationship among Indigenous people, New Brunswick and Canada
- An educational response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Action.
This teaching resource has been created so young people and the public throughout New Brunswick can better understand the treaties that were agreed to by the Indigenous peoples of New Brunswick and the British Crown. The name of this resource, Ah, the truth. What is our truth? was selected because many people are unclear about what was understood by Indigenous peoples when these treaties were signed. These treaties are called Peace and Friendship Treaties and were signed in the 18th century. Representatives of the British crown and the Waponahkiyik Nations — the Wolastoqewiyik, Mi’kmaq, Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati), Penobscot, and Abenaki — signed the Treaties. Their intent was to maintain peace and friendship and allow both English and Indigenous parties to maintain their ways of life. Unlike other Treaties signed in Canada, there was no mention, much less surrender, of land in any of the Peace and Friendship Treaties. They were renewed and ratified during times of British conflict with the French — Indigenous peoples had supported the French during their wars with the British — to secure Indigenous neutrality. The Treaties were also renewed at the end of wars that the Wabanaki fought to prevent the theft of their land. Although the Peace and Friendship Treaties have endured over the centuries and remain relevant today, they are written in English only, meaning that oftentimes, the truth of the Indigenous point of view has been underrepresented or, worse still, ignored.
With the benefit of advice from Elders on language and stories, research, selections from previously printed material, and photographs, we will share with you content and teaching strategies. These are arranged under three overarching themes:
- Mi’kmaw, Passamaquoddy and Wolastoqey culture and beliefs — Ta’n Teli- wlo’ltimk aqq ta’n Kɨpnno’l Ta’n Teleyuksi’kw – Identity – Tan Wetapeksi
- Past history and how it affects the present — Ta’n Tel-mimajultimk, Mawo’ltimk aqq Kipnno’lewey — Economic, Social and Political Life — Wetawsultiyeqpon, Mawehewakon naka Litposuwakon
- Contemporary issues and taking positive action — Kiskuk Ta’n Teliaq — Contemporary Issues – Tokec Weskuwitasikil Eleyik.
In this curriculum resource, we have used the Mi’kmaw (Francis-Smith writing system) and Wolastoqey (formerly Maliseet; Robert M. Leavitt writing system) languages wherever possible. We have also used Mi’kmaw and Wolastoqey terms alongside English terms. This is, in part, an effort to encourage all young people to try to learn these languages. In each case, Mi’kmaw is above or before (blue) the English term and Wolastoqey Latuwewakon (red) is below or after it.
The content and strategies are presented in nine lessons. There are three lesson plans for each of the themes. Each lesson plan includes:
- Global and subject-based competencies matched to content
- Background notes for the teacher
- Materials to complement the assigned textbook
- A historical quote from or about Indigenous people of the Maritimes
- A range of activities based on the needs of the classroom
- Five animations that support the activities
- Vocabulary in Mi’kmaw and Wolastoqey Latuwewakon
- Additional online resources
It is not necessary that you complete all these activities. Depending on the makeup of your class — Indigenous, non-Indigenous, a blend of both or multicultural — you may select whatever activity is most appropriate. We have designed the material to resemble Mi’kamawe’l Taʹn Tel-Kinaʹmuemk, the curriculum material designed by the Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq in Nova Scotia, and we have sometimes drawn from this work when creating this curriculum resource. An online copy of this curriculum is available at: www.mikmaweydebert.ca/home/sharing-ourstories/education-and-outreach/school-curriculum. We have also used material from the Abbe Museum in Bar Harbor, Maine particularly regarding Peskotomuhkati (Passamaquoddy). Sharing these resources demonstrates how First Nations borders extend beyond present-day Provincial borders as do the Peace and Friendship Treaties. These treaties serve as the terms of the initial relationship between First Nations and the present-day Federal and Provincial Governments and are discussed throughout the units of study for grades 3–6.
Table of contents
The lesson topics are listed in the chart below under the three respective themes. The title for the Grade 5 unit is:
Teliaqewey, kaqowey net Teliaqeweminu?
Ah, the truth. What is our Truth?
Wolamewakon. Keq nit Kwolamewakonon?
Tan wen Wetapeksit
Economic Social and
|Kiskuk Ta’n Teliaq|
|A Ta’n tel-pmiaq mimajuaqn|
Cycles of life
|D Ta’n Tel-kisitasikil|
The Making of Reserves
Amsqahs Cepikapuwahasikpon Skicinuwihkuk
|G Nuji-Anko’taqatijik aqq Nujeywa’tijik|
Protectors and Guardians
Kinanpuwicik naka Ihkatuwicik
|B Aqalasie’wey Mna’q|
Naqa’sinukw Ujit Ninen
The Colonial Experience Has Never Ended for Us
Okamonuhkewey Ulamsotuwakon mec Sepawsuwiw
|E L’nue’kati’l Kiskuk|
First Nation Communities Today
Waponuwi Skicinuwihqol Tokec
|H Ta’n Teli-ikanpukuimk|
To Be a Leader
Tan Wen Eli Nikanikapuwit
|C Il-mimajua’tmk Ta’n Teli-L’nuimk|
Renewing Our Culture
Minuwi Kcitomitahatomonen Skicinuwawsuwakonon: Namkomihptasuwol Latuwewakonol
|F Kitnmagn Ujit Ta’n|
The Struggle for Recognition as Nations
|I Mawi-espi-mlkiknMawi-espi-mikiknamk aqg|
Ta’n Telksma’lsultimk Sovereignty and Self-determination
All nine lesson plans at each grade level represent a total of about four weeks of work if a teacher were to teach the lessons in a Social Studies setting. As the Grade 5 Social Studies program focuses on the ancient past, we have also related the lessons to outcomes in other disciplines where possible. This makes it possible to expedite the time to be spent on this unit. The lesson plans and kits of books containing First Nations Lesson Plans K-5, which were introduced in 2015 by the New Brunswick Department of Education and Early Childhood Development for use at the Grade 5 level, include many books and lesson plans addressing the Social Studies and Language Arts outcomes. We have incorporated some of these in our lesson plans. This Grade 5 program is part of a continuum addressed in Treaty Education Gr. 3–5 contained in the Handbook on Approaches to Teaching about Treaty Education.