Materials required: projector, whiteboard
Have students look at the picture above. Ask them what they see (fishing, lumbering, hunting) on unclaimed land as a result of the Mascarene Treaty of 1725. Ask the following:
- What do you think the poster is trying to say?
- Is it designed for Indigenous people? Non-Indigenous people? Or both? Why?
- Is it clear who owns the poster?
Now have the teacher read highlighted sections of the treaty and see if the students change their mind. Take class notes from the highlighted parts in two sections: Indian promises and English promises across from each other as it is in the poster. What Indigenous people are involved? (Wabanaki Confederacy) Ask the students to write down their opinion of the 1725 Mascarene Treaty and put it in their logbook.
Wabanaki Promises (Known as Treaty 239)
Mascarene’s Treaty of 1725 as signed June 4, 1726, Annapolis Royal, enclosed in Governor L. Armstrong to Secretary of State, 24 November, 1726
WHEREAS by Articles of peace and agreement made and concluded upon at Boston in New England the fifteenth day of December One thousand seven hundred twenty five, by our Delegates & Representatives, Sauguarum alias Laurens Alexis, Francois Xavier and Meganumbe, as appears by the Instruments then Signed Sealed and Exchanged in the presence of the great and Generall Court or Assembly of the Massachusetts Bay, by our said Delegates in behalf of us the Indians of Penubscutt, Norrigewock, St. Johns, Cape Sables and Other Tribes Inhabiting within these His Majestic of Great Britain’s Territories of Nova Scotia and New England, and by Major Paul Mascarene Commissioner from this said Province in behalf of his Majesty, by which agreement it being required that the said Articles should be Ratified here, at his Majesty’s effort of Annapolis Royall, we the Chiefs and Representatives of the said Indians with full power and Authority, by an unanimous consent and Desire of the said Indian Tribes, are come in compliance with the Articles stipulated by our Delegates as aforesaid, and do in obedience thereunto Solemnly confirm & Ratifie the same and in testimony thereof with hearts full of sincerity we have signed and Sealed the following Articles being conform to what was required by the said Major Paul Mascarene and promised to be performed by our said delegates
Whereas his Majesty King George by the Concession of the most Christian King (this was one of titles used to refer to the King of France) made at the Treaty of Utrecht is become the Rightfull Possessor of the Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie According to its antient Boundarys we the said Chiefs & Representatives of the Penubscutt Norrigewock St Johns, Cape Sables and of the other Indian Tribes belonging to and inhabiting within this his Majesty’s Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie and New England do for ourselves and the said Tribes we represent Acknowledge his said Majesty’s King Georges Jurisdiction and Dominion over the Territories of the said Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie and make our Submission to his said Majesty in as ample a manner as we have formerly done to the Most Christian King
And we further promise in behalf of ourselves and our said Tribes
That the Indians shall not molest any of His Majesty’s Subjects or their Dependants in their Settlements already made, or Lawfully to be made or in their carrying on their Trade & other affairs within the said Province -That if there happens any Robbery or outrage committed by any of our Indians the Tribe or Tribes they belong to shall cause satisfaction to be made to the Parties Injured -That the Indians shall not help to convey away any Souldiers belonging to his Majesty’s efforts, but on the contrary shall bring back any souldier they shall find endeavouring to run away -That in case of any misunderstanding, Quarrel or Injury between the English and the Indians, no private Revenge shall be taken, but Application shall be made for redress according to His Majesty’s Laws -That if there be any English Prisoners amongst any of our aforesd. Tribes, we faithfully promise that the said Prisoners shall be released & Carefully conducted and Delivered up to this Government or that of New England
That in testimony of our Sincerity we have for ourselves and in behalf of all and Singular of our said Indian Tribes conforme to what was Stipulated by our delegates at Boston or aforesaid, this day Solemnly Confirmed & Ratified each and every one of the foregoing Articles which shall be punctually Observed and duly performed by each and all of us the said Indians. In Witness Whereof we have before the Honourable John Doucett & Council for this His Majesty and the Deputies of the French Inhabitants of said Province hereunto set our hands and Seals at Annapolis Royall this fourth day of June one thousand seven hundred and twenty-six and in the twelfth year of His Majesty’s Reigne.
English Promises (Known as Mascarene’s Promises)
By Major Paul Mascarene one of the Councill for His Majestys Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie and Commissioned by the Honourable Lawrence Armstrong Esqr Lieut Governour and Commander in Chief of the Said Province for treating with the Indians engaged in the late Warr- Whereas Sanguarum als Laurens, Alexis, Francois Xavier and Meganumbe Delegates of the Tribes of Penobscutt, Norrigewock, St. Johns, Cape Sables and other Tribes Inhabiting His Majesty’s Territories of Nova Scotia or Accadie and New England; have by Instruments Signed by them made their Submission to His Majesty George by the grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland King defender of the Faith and acknowledged His Majesty’s Just Title to the Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie and promised to live peaceably with all His Majesty’s Subjects and their Dependants with what further is Contained in the Severall Articles of those Instruments
I do in behalf of His Majesty’s Said Governor and Government of Nova Scotia or Acadie – promise the said Tribes all marks of Favour protection and Friendship and further engage and promise in behalf of the Said Government That the Indians shall not be molested in their persons, Hunting, Fishing and Planting Grounds nor in any other their Lawful Occasions by His Majesty’s Subjects or their Dependants nor in the Exercise of their Religion Provided the Missionaries residing amongst them have leave from the Governor or Commander in Chief of His Majestys Said Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie for so doing. That if any of the Indians are Injured by any of His Majesty’s aforesaid Subjects or their Dependants they shall have Satisfaction and Reparation made to them according to His Majesty’s Laws whereof the Indians shall have the Benefit equal with His Majesty’s other Subjects. That upon the Indians bringing back any Soldier endeavouring to run away from any of His Majesty’s Forts or Garrisons the said Indians for this good Office shall be handsomely rewarded. That the Indians in Custody at Annapolis Royall shall be released except such as the Governor or Commander in Chief shall think proper to keep as Hostages at the Ratification of this Treaty which shall be at Annapolis Royall in presence of the Governor or Commander in Chief and the Chiefs of the Indians.
Given under my hand & Seal at the Council Chamber in Boston in New England this fifteenth day of December Anno Dom One Thousand Seven hundred and twenty-five Annoque Regni Regis Georgii Magnae Brittanniae & Duodecimo [in the twelfth year of the reign of King George of Great Britain]
To reinforce what this treaty said, have the students complete the following animation.
Important note: Do not hesitate to click on “Pause” in the progress bar while looking at the animation, so you can observe more details in the pictures or the illustrations.